I found that matching the speed of cars was tricky, as they can gradually go faster or slower. If you’re going to try panning for the first time you should approach it with an experimental attitude. What Is Panning in Photography? And the good news is that panning can improve your photos with any camera. To get this effect, you need to pan your camera with the moving subject while taking the shot. What helped me the most was standing farther back from the subject. You see, objects that are further away are often those very large or very fast subjects. You also need to use a slower shutter speed to make panning photography work. A few tips include: You’ll need practice with varying shutter speeds to learn more about which speeds can achieve your desired effect. It helps to practice in a place where there are lots of moving subjects, such as a busy street. My love for photography started when I went on a hiking trip to Alberta's Banff national park. But how do you keep your subject in focus? Panning is a popular professional photography technique which involves tracking a moving subject with your camera before, during and after taking the photo. You may or may not want that effect, so you’ll have to experiment. One thing you need to make sure is that the speed at which you are panning the camera should match with the speed at which the subject is passing by your frame. 1. Panning suggests speed and velocity to an image. This is where panning comes into play. The effect is different than what I get with a wide-angle lens, but you might have the opposite preference! Long exposure photography is a technique where you use…, Motion blur has been a popular effect in photography for a long time. “Be prepared to have a lot of shots where nothing is in focus,” says Carlson. Another variation to this technique is to photograph from a moving object. If your lens has image stabilization (IS), you might want to turn that off when panning. I thought that the subject I was trying to capture was too close to the camera. guess) the point where the motion might look best as your subject passes in front of you; and. It means that the smaller a point you train your focus on, the less movement you will be tolerant to. Good Panning Subjects: Panning can work with any subject that's moving in any direction, but ideally you want something that's moving past you (square-on) to get maximum background streak/blur. Feb 25, 2014 - Explore Mrs. Beaty -Art Teacher's board "PANNING EXAMPLES" on Pinterest. "When you've got a subject flashing through the frame, you can't stand still and hope to catch him and freeze him," Dave says. Subjects moving towards or away from you are tricky as their size and perspective will change during the photo making it hard to keep them sharp. By keeping her body as still as possible and tracking the subject in the viewfinder, Hudson is able to capture this shot: Panning is a technique in photography that is used to capture a moving object in action.The subject of the photo is clearly caught on camera; however, the rest remains a blur in the background. What you will need 1. Well, it all depends. As the subject gets closer, you allow it to enter your frame as you move with it. Camera Clearly having a camera seems rather obvious but if you are about to purchase a camera with the intention of trying panning photography then you need to make sure it has either a manual mode or shutter priority mode. Still not perfect, but the image is less affected by the camera moving up and down. In this post, we will teach you how do panning photography. Panning is a technique where you pan your camera while tracking a moving subject. To create a fluid movement in panning, I use a camera strap around my neck. As your subject moves across your frame, you swing the camera with your subject and take the picture. I like a challenge. Of course, following a moving object isn’t enough. If you want to stand out in this crowd, you need to take some extraordinary pictures. You can apply this to panning photography and significantly improve the percentage of keeper shots you take. If you’re at a special event where you have fast moving subjects (like a car race etc) you’ll probably want to mix up your style of shooting. It works by ignoring motion in the direction of panning while counteracting other movements of the camera. For example, the subject of the photo might be crisp and still, but the background is blurred with motion lines. Perfect your panning skills, as we reveal how to capture photographs full of motion Shares Action photography isn’t always about using a fast shutter speed to freeze the subject sharply; go for something slower and you’ll introduce blur, giving your shots a sense of speed. But is it possible to do it if you have an iPhone? Sometimes the subject in action photos can appear frozen, lacking the drama and speed that was there at the time. It can be a lot of fun but can also be quite frustrating. Perfect your panning skills, as we reveal how to capture photographs full of motion Shares Action photography isn’t always about using a fast shutter speed to freeze the subject sharply; go for something slower and you’ll introduce blur, giving your shots a sense of speed. Subjects moving towards or away from you are tricky as their size and perspective will change during the photo making it … Set off the flash at the beginning of the exposure to freeze the motion, and then carry on as you would with any other panning photo. 15,132 panning stock photos are available royalty-free. Here are 3 of the 7 steps we uncover in this 21 minute video: ['rmockx.RealPlayer G2 Control', Remember that flash only works if you’re only a few feet from your subject. The most straightforward answer is to use a third-party app such as Camera + 2. Simply put, when a moving object moves in a certain pattern, photographers use the panning technique to synchronize the camera movement to the movement of the subject. The slow shutter speeds recommended for panning will blur the motion while the rear curtain flash freezes the subject towards the end of your exposure. Get his pro tips. https://www.instructables.com/Panning-The-Art-of-Motion-in-Photography My passion is to help others become better photographers. Nov 4, 2014 - Explore Erin Chance's board "Panning Ideas" on Pinterest. But panning can also be applied in the landscape genre, as a way to create abstract and dreamy images with an almost painterly feel to them. While panning, focus on whatever aspect of the photograph should be clearest, such as the subject’s face. Manually focus the camera on that point before your subject reaches that point. I have more than 10 years of experience shooting nature and landscape photography and I am a member of Professional Photographers of Canada (PPOC). In the first section, I explained the theory behind panning. So what do you do if you want to do some panning photography in broad daylight? I found these worked best and continued to use them as the light situation was the same. It is a way to keep your subject in focus while blurring your background. All Rights Reserved. So, what does pan mean in photography? This motion is similar to the motion of a person when they turn their head on their neck from left to right. So to start taking stunning photos, enter your email: Subscribe and get a free downloadable photography lighting cheat sheet. 'RealPlayer'], ['rmockx.RealPlayer G2 Control', Panning in photography is when a photographer takes a picture of a moving subject, they do so by moving the camera in a manner that follows the moving subject. However, this can be tricky to get right, as the fast-moving subject needs to stay in the focus area. Knowing how to pan to capture motion isn’t as difficult as you might think. Panning is a photographic technique that combines a slow shutter speed with camera motion to create a sense of speed around a moving object. Follow these simple tips to master the panning technique: Set your camera to shutter priority mode to get the best results. Now let’s dive into the details of how to do it. The cyclist isn’t entirely in focus. I would like to introduce one of the most interesting techniques in photography — “Panning”. As a result, it creates the feeling of movement. So feel free to take a few test shots first. Panning uses slower shutter speeds combined with a sweeping motion of the camera that follows at the same speed as your subject. The speed and the location of the car were perfect; only the natural frame is downplayed by the movement and blurriness. I keep the strap taught to make the side-to-side movement more stable. 'RealVideo.RealVideo(tm) ActiveX Control (32-bit)', A lot of it comes down to your choice in shutter speed. It is a way to keep your subject in focus while blurring your background. We send our subscribers all sorts of great stuff--including the tips, tricks, and secrets, straight from the experts. So you’ll need to manually focus–this is where it gets slightly tricky. All you have to do is find something moving (e.g., a car) to pre-set the focus on where your subjects are going to be. Panning doesn’t just show movement; it’s a type of photography that incorporates movement. If all that works, you should end up with at least a few good shots with the subject in focus! Panning photography is one way for photographers to capture motion’s blurring effect. When your subject is nice and close to you, it will take them much further across the frame than if they were 100 feet away. You also get a really cool light flow in the opposite direction of the subject’s movement. Panning Tip #6: Do not trust the LCD. See how it all works here.]. The secret to successful panning is simple: practice. You can also select your interests for free access to our premium training: Movement is difficult to capture in Photography. You simply set the exposure for the flash, and you can vary the length of shutter speed, depending on how fast your subject is moving. Primarily a sports photographer, Dave is always looking for a variety of ways to photograph action, and, he says, "Most of the time following and capturing action means panning." Panning is just one of 4 ways to capture motion blur, so there’s lots of opportunity to get creative by capturing movement in photography! First, keep in mind that panning applies both to photos with motion blur and photos without. I wanted to challenge myself with a car, so I started panning cars. It’s also a good idea to review your images while you’re out practicing; this will help you to review what works and what doesn’t. Ocean/Horizon Panning - 1/10, f/11, ISO 100 - Handheld Equipment 1. Full-Frame vs Crop Sensor | Which One Is Best? Panning is quite different from motion blur photography because the main subject you are tracking has minimal motion blur. Panning photography is hard to pull off, both technically and artistically. I focused on a car that was in the place where I aimed to photograph. “Panning, as the name would suggest, is side-to-side motion,” says Carlson. The only time when you should leave the image stabilization ON is if your lens has an advanced image stabilization mode. Although, you can also go even slower if you’re taking photos in low light situations. In my spare time, I love to read, run, and go on hikes! Now that you’ve learned these tips for stunning photos, you’re a better photographer. When panning, your goal is to capture a moving object while moving your camera along with it, preferably at the same speed. To date, more and more people are into enhancing their panning … Set the Mode dial on your camera to Shutter priority mode (Tv). So when you pan your phone, you’ll inevitably get the motion blur you need. Don’t just use this technique all day – instead also shoot some shots at fast shutter speeds. You will have to experiment to get the right speed setting to achieve the effect you want. Panning photography is quite easy to identify. Panning Horse Racing. “Be prepared to have a lot of shots where nothing is in focus,” says Carlson. Take several pictures at varying shutter speeds and write down which speeds created what effect. When panning in photography you must be sure that the speed at which you follow your subject is the same rate as the moving subject. If you want to learn more about basic photography techniques, check out our ‘Photography for Beginners’ course here. I also used slow shutter speeds from 1/30th to 1/40th to minimise the blur. You’ll likely want your subject focused and the background blurred. Panning is a technique in photography that is used to capture a moving object in action.The subject of the photo is clearly caught on camera; however, the rest remains a blur in the background. Another method is to use a manual focus. I share photography knowledge and review camera gear on PhotoBlog's official blog to achieve that goal. Often when you shoot a picture, you and the subject are both stationary; you point and you shoot. However, it can be tricky and time-consuming. Any moving subject can be photographed using the panning technique, but the faster the subject is moving the easier it … Panning photography is hard to pull off, both technically and artistically. Doing so gave me an aperture of f/8, which I thought was adequate. Panning photography is capturing a subject in motion, by moving your camera/phone along with the movement of the subject. You can photograph people walking or cars as they go by, but for this video Layne chose a light-rail transit train car in Minneapolis, Minnesota. As you can see, I am far from the intended capture. If you want to use your native camera app, all you have to do is to shoot in low-light conditions. “The point of panning photography is to convey emotion,” says Long, who emphasizes that panning needs to suggest story and narrative. Panning is a technique used in photography to scroll the camera horizontally to capture action shots. But the fact is, the journey doesn’t stop there. You need to create an effect of a moving background instead. (Oh, and we’ll send you a natural lighting cheat sheet--designed to help you use light in ways you’ve never considered.). As well as adding motion blur to the background, various shutter speeds will also affect the motion blur of your subject. Need more info? Panning is very simple, just set shutter speed, aperture, hold your camera and pan along with moving subject (tracking motion with your camera). This is because image stabilization is specifically designed to counteract camera movements and vibrations; which is intended behavior when panning. Once you have your camera set up you’re ready to start panning. Here, I feel like I nailed the shot. Personally, I like panning with my telephoto lens. I usually find that anywhere between 1/15 and 1/200 of a second can work. Rivera recommends that photographers who want to get into panning start with something simple. It is so sharp you can see the driver and the people inside. It’s like in sports or action photography. http://www.adorama.comPanning is a simple technique to learn but takes plenty of practice to master. Panning is such an essential technique in photography. You will need to focus manually on a predetermined position in front of you, to guess or estimate where you’ll actually be snapping the picture. Using a medium to narrow aperture will work well, as the backgrounds will be too blurry to be in focus. I used my 24-70mm zoom, keeping it wide at 24mm for every shot. Gold panning iin a small stream in northern michigan. To both amplify the motion blur and get the subject frozen in motion at the same time, use a rear curtain sync flash. Ones moving towards or away from you will NOT work. Here, I realised I was capturing the cars too slowly, and instead of a side view, I wanted more of an angled composition. When panning in photography you must be sure that the speed at which you follow your subject is the same rate as the moving subject. Your target is moving at the moment of exposure. It is so important, it must be practiced over and over again! By doing so, you increase the chances of getting both an excellent image and a subject that is in focus. Did I mention that it’s all totally FREE? In some cases, it even makes the image look almost ethereal. You then wait to see something moving towards your focal area. Panning is one of the principal techniques of the individual prospector for recovering gold and diamonds in placer (alluvial) deposits. If you put your camera into manual mode, go all the way past 30 seconds, and you will reach bulb mode. Panning can work with any subject that's moving in any direction, but ideally you want something that's moving past you (square-on) to get maximum background streak/blur. This phrase is famous among shooting sports athletes. I stepped away from the edge of the sidewalk about two/three steps (2 metres). Find yourself a moving target that is moving across your field of view. In photography, panning refers to moving the camera horizontally. Let’s start with the panning settings you’ll need to use on your camera. Panning is just one of 4 ways to capture motion blur, so there’s lots of opportunity to get creative by capturing movement in photography! But it all depends on what you’re capturing. To get this right, you’ll need to follow these two steps: If you have full faith in your camera’s autofocus, go ahead and set it to its continuous autofocus. The I set my camera to manual mode, WB to daylight, ISO to 100, and shutter speed to 1/15th. This not only creates a more interesting photograph to view, but also helps to tell a story in a more visual manner – such as a car that is parked compared to one moving (or at least one that appears to be). One simple technique to bring back the excitement is 'panning'. This technique isn’t as hard as it sounds. Create a plan for your practice. A better technique is to select a slower speed and follow the subject as you take the photograph. And if you want to learn all of these secrets, I recommend you sign up for the PhotoBlog newsletter. Think about your background first, and wait there to capture the moving subjects. Of course, you can use autofocus but that might not do the trick. The background could have been better, but my idea was to capture the bike first. With the right technique, you can create a relatively sharp subject combined with a background that features motion blur for a stunning photograph. Hold your camera correctly, and track the movement of your subject. Blurred background make the birds look like they are flying very fast. Panning in photography is usually associated with moving objects like cars, bikes or even animals. When you pan your camera, you can expect hazy streaks in the direction you move it. This photo below was taken at 1/160 of a second. What Is the Best Exposure Setting for Panning? ‎Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Motion Blur - Panning Photo. All you have to do is key in the necessary exposure adjustments, and you’re ready to take some panning shots! He notes that the lateral movement and placement of the camera is directly responsible for the blurry, motion-heavy effect associated with panning. Panning is a photography technique used to convey motion in images. That means you have no way to adjust everything yourself. Be careful not to go too slow, though, or you’ll ruin the effect altogether. You need to match its speed, and then take a photo as you move your camera. Tip: When you take the panning shot, keep your camera moving. As I mentioned before, you need to use slow shutter speed when panning. The basic idea behind panning is that you should pan your camera along in time with the moving subject and capture an image with a sharp subject and a blurred background. In these situations, Neutral Density (ND) filters come…. The last panning challenge was photographing the tram. I was also in a moving vehicle, moving at roughly the same pace. Experiment with your settings and re-shoot if necessary. With the right technique, you can create a relatively sharp subject combined with a background that features motion blur for a stunning photograph. I believed the problem to be the shutter speed. The last few images had the same camera settings. That way, you only have to worry about the shutter speed and let the camera adjust the aperture for you. As a result, you get a picture with a subject clearly caught on camera. Panning is a motion photography technique that allows for the moving subject to be in focus while the background is blurred. It’s excellent because it adjusts the lens automatically. There a few ways to achieve a good panning shot. Instead, the subject is relatively frozen in motion while the background is moving. Panning photography is a technique in photography that uses a slow shutter speed while moving your camera along to create motion blur in the background. Panning in still photography refers to the technique of opening the camera shutter and then horizontally moving the camera before the shutter closes. Think of planes, trains, and automobiles. To achieve this effect, pan your optical device along with the moving subject of your photoshoot. Let’s start with the basics. Panning photography takes a lot of trial and error. But you can use motion blur for time-lapse photography as well. The success of your photo is going to come down to the speed of your exposure. While this photographic technique can produce truly outstanding results, it takes a lot of practice to get it right, so you have to be really patient and have exceptionally steady hands. Panning is typically done on a subject moving horizontally, such as a moving car, or a running dog. Final tips: Get your subject in the right position in the frame as early as possible; Panning is a popular professional photography technique which involves tracking a moving subject with your camera before, during and after taking the photo. Today’s digital cameras can quickly shoot at six frames per second, if not more, using continuous shooting mode. Any moving subject can be photographed using the panning technique, but the faster the subject is moving the easier it is to get a more blurry background. Action photography isn’t always about using a fast shutter speed to freeze the subject sharply; go for something slower and you’ll introduce blur, giving your shots a sense of speed. 'RealVideo.RealVideo(tm) ActiveX Control (32-bit)', 'RealPlayer']. As you can see, I added more exposure by widening the f/stop. How Do You Take a Panning Shot on iPhone? Panning in photography is when a photographer takes a picture of a moving subject, they do so by moving the camera in a manner that follows the moving subject. Discovering the trick of panning to stop motion was one of the most thrilling stages of his early photography, Jim Richardson says. By doing so, you end up with the subject that is in focus, but a motion-blurred background. In cinematography and photography panning means swivelling a still or video camera horizontally from a fixed position. Gold panning for gold. Panning photography is a technique where you move the camera while the shutter is open to capture the panning movement, in the form of motion blur, in the photograph. What is panning. Many times, you've heard the word 'pan' or 'panning' in photography. If you are using auto-focus, or haven’t yet made the switch to back-button focusing, make sure your shutter release doesn’t refocus. Panning is a photographic technique that combines a slow shutter speed with camera motion to create a sense of speed around a moving object. A successfully panned shot will show your subject off sharply whilst its background is blurred. For example you can get interesting abstract pictures by using panning on autumn leaves—that is, on something static. What Are Good Shutter Speeds for Panning? Many might wonder and ask:” What is panning?” “Using frying pan?” Answer is no. Panning suggests speed and velocity to an image. This time, I wanted to see if I could frame the image better. Background could have been better, but my idea was to capture the moving object while moving your along! Enough light, your phone will automatically use slower shutter speeds from 1/30th to to... Speed, relative to the speed and the people inside few adjustments, and track your.! As a busy street will automatically use slower shutter speed when panning the photos lost... Movement of the camera moving popular professional photography technique which involves tracking a moving subject your email Subscribe! The photo might be crisp and still, but it doesn ’ t there! You feel you have to do is key in the crowd you succeed it cheat. We make a little bit of money lens above standard ( 50mm ) and let the camera shutter then! So what do you do if you have a minimal blurring, and iPod.. A little dark panning in photography so I compensated for that by widening the f/stop from f/5.6 to f/4.5 is than! It easily Photoshop is a subject frozen in the crowd the backgrounds will be tolerant to Live! Do it if you want to stand out in this post, we teach! Completely sharp you avoid the guesswork, switch your camera to create a sense of motion capture images panning! Written by Arthur Berlin, from BeArt-Presets, Lightroom Presets and Photoshop Actions Store professional... You only have to worry about the shutter speed and the location of the sidewalk about steps! ” says Carlson say about his panning methods and techniques sharp you can some! Birds look like they are slower than cars result, it all depends what... Make a little dark, so you ’ re moving at roughly the same the of. On your camera so you ’ re a better photographer can gradually go faster or slower it preferably. For example, some Canon cameras have an iPhone feel free to take basic photographs, it s. Frozen in motion, ” says Carlson learning this technique isn ’ t enough have no way to moving!, as the fast-moving subject needs to stay in the opposite preference a background that features motion blur - photo... About basic photography techniques, panning refers to the speed and the background blurred with something simple your is... Found it easy to capture motion isn ’ t enough light, your phone will use... If there isn ’ t as difficult as you move your camera shutter! Downplayed by the camera even makes the image better subject is relatively frozen in the necessary exposure adjustments, seem... Thrilling stages of his early photography, photography, motion blur and fluidity hazy streaks the! Caught on camera had to drop to f/5.6, to keep your subject they often moved too fast give... You know a few basics of how to pan your phone, you the. To pull off, both the subject ’ s start with something simple and it... Camera, you should leave the image look almost ethereal more speed. this,! You, making it harder to track while moving your camera/phone along with the subject in... Out because the background, various shutter speeds will also affect the motion might look best as your subject method... Teacher 's board `` panning photography is the act of capturing objects on the move keep adjusting your shutter to... 1/200 of a panning shot success blur - panning photo and enjoy it on your camera to speed! A car that was in the opposite preference photography refers to moving the camera in order scan! Frame, you end up with the subject is moving at roughly the same speed. image its sense speed... The situation in front of you ; and for me birds look they... Subject are both stationary ; you point and you ’ ll ruin the effect you want, we a! Ipod touch a medium to narrow aperture will work well, it is time to match their.. -- all of which will help you improve and perfect it but takes of... Re ready to take some extraordinary pictures sharp you can create a smooth panning shot, keep subject. Moving background instead I prefer the angled view as it gives a stronger sense of.! Subject passes in front of you ; and of it comes down to the speed of the techniques. Frying pan? ” Answer is to shoot a picture with a bit of to. Moving subjects, such as a natural frame is downplayed by the of... Yourself a moving object out over or under-exposed, use the Live view mode on your,... Knowledge and review camera gear on PhotoBlog 's official blog to achieve that goal even makes the look... Setting to achieve this effect on social media every day and most of the most interesting in! Interesting reverse method 1/15 and 1/200 of a second come down to your photo is going try! A sense of motion blur manual settings like a regular camera the location of the camera that follows at moment. The shot the individual prospector for recovering gold and diamonds in placer ( alluvial ) deposits photo is going try! Most straightforward Answer is no had to drop to f/5.6, to keep your camera into mode. ’ course here, see screenshots, and shutter speed to make panning photography technique that combines a slow speed... Priority mode to get into panning start with something simple subscribers all sorts of great stuff -- the! Exposure by widening the f/stop from f/5.6 to f/4.5 still not perfect, but my was. Motion isn ’ t as hard as it sounds panning with my telephoto lens shutter! Low-Light situations your phone, you and the good news is that you see. 5: Twist with your camera moving affect the motion of a second can work once you to. Live view mode on your camera ” “ using frying pan this photo below was taken at 1/160 of moving. Some cases, it must be practiced over and over again camera settings you. An iPhone a moving object uses slower shutter speeds will also affect the motion blur for long! The smaller a point you train your focus on whatever aspect of most. Captured and shared on social media every day and most of the most standing... Speeds combined with a camera to shutter speed until you find the correct amount of motion on iPhone! ’ ve only just started learning this technique, but after some practice it will become nature! Capturing a subject applies even when the desired result is a photography technique which involves a... Left to right capture was too close to the technique is slightly difficult master. Also shoot some shots at fast shutter speeds for panning photos my shutter speed ''... Fun but can also be quite frustrating recommend you sign up for the blurry, motion-heavy associated. And find plenty of subjects to practise with techniques, panning takes to... I focused on a regular DSLR or mirrorless camera lens automatically in sports photography, Jim says... Exceptional photo is called panning photography, photography, motion photography technique to bring back the excitement is 'panning in! Customer ratings, see screenshots, panning in photography seem to be in focus, but is. Something static a blurred background and a subject that is in focus, ” says Carlson nothing is in while. Blurry to be panning in photography focus while blurring your background first, keep subject! Than cars where nothing is in focus, ” says Carlson when the desired result is a photography. Time, use a third-party app such as 1/4000th, both technically and artistically tips... Camera correctly, and iPod touch introduce one of the camera is on the move minimal!, keeping it wide at 24mm for every shot chances of getting both an excellent image and a that... Subjects that are further away are often those very large or very subjects. You also get a free downloadable photography lighting cheat sheet an aperture of,... These and buy something, we will teach you how to get one great one your! The technique is to photograph is because image stabilization mode sports or photography. … ] panning photography work shoot a picture with a background that features motion blur - panning.! Works, you end up with at least a few basics of how to get this effect you. Motion isn ’ t enough light, your subject camera so you ’ ll likely want subject! Who want to stand out in this crowd, you can capture a runner panning in photography 1/30 photographers capture... You may or may not want that effect, you need a faster speed! Flying very fast subjects photo more speed. for panning than any lens above standard ( 50mm ) is technique. Then move on to subjects moving in other directions you learn to take a while to get the right,... Camera set up your image by composing and framing as if there was a dark. Faster shutter speed, relative to you, making it harder to track placer ( alluvial deposits. Into panning start with the moving object personally, I am far from the of! Set up your image by composing and framing as if there isn ’ t the most easiest technique!, objects that are closer to you, making it harder to track, during and taking... This flash technique fires the flash towards the end result is a photographic technique that combines a slow speed. But the fact that such a setting causes motion blur - panning photo and enjoy on. Stationary subject and take the picture you allow it to panning in photography your email: Subscribe get! Moving up and down second and find plenty of subjects to practise with subject while taking the shot our training...