Quintessentially, investigators use class characteristics to narrow the pattern found at a scene to specific and individual characteristics. However, finding a suspect’s fingerprint (an individual characteristic) on a .38 caliber handgun suggests that this .38, to the exclusion of all others, was the murder weapon. From there, DNA (an individual characteristic) from the suspect and DNA from the blood evidence are tested to determine conclusively whether they match. Specifically, what are class characteristics of physical evidence? Provide 2 different examples that illustrate your explanation. Individual characteristics: characteristics that establish the uniqueness of an object. evidence based on suggestion rather than personal knowledge or observation: any object or material relevant in a crime: testimony that is usually not admissible in a courtroom: sample collected from a known location but is of unknown origin: material that is associated with a group: material that can be traced to a single source: ability of evidence to prove something that is material to a crime. Toolmarks A toolmark is defined as the impression left by the contact of a tool (or a similar object) onto a surface. What must an investigator consider regarding the use of class characteristics as evidence in court? Fracture or tear patterns can be individualizing; the way glass breaks, paper tears, and cloth rips is unique in each situation. Thus, while the class characteristics may be identical on bullets fired by two different weapons, the individual characteristics will be different. If, however, the suspect’s blood is type A, he then is excluded as the source of the blood. Explain. At the crime scene, you have completed the initial walk-through and are planning your collection of the evidence at the scene, when a new investigator approaches you and asks about the differences between individual and class characteristics of physical evidence. In addition to markings on the bullets, the magazine, firing pin, extractor, ejector, and breech face of a weapon may all impart class and individual markings to a cartridge case or primer. A single piece of class evidence rarely can be used to convict someone, but it can be and often is used to exonerate someone. Bags whose class characteristics are not consistent do not compare, where as those bags whose class characteristics compare are then examined for individual characteristics. a. place an item into a specific category. This can consist of a gun that shot the victim or it can even be residue on the hands of the perpetrator. Why or why not? Evidence having class characteristics can: A. Impression evidence such as marks left on a fired bullet, shoeprints, tire tracks, and toolmarks may be unique and therefore have individual characteristics. Now that you have educated the new investigator on the concepts of class and individual characteristics of evidence, it is time to begin collecting the evidence that you had marked during the initial walk-through. This is particularly true if the killing bullet can also be matched to this particular .38. “Class characteristics alone do not allow matches with a single suspect. Paint can be a type of forensic evidence, or evidence that can be utilized to solve a crime. Testimony. T of F? In general, all forms of evidence have class or individual characteristics. Same color, same texture, same material, same size. For example, if the bullet came from a .38 caliber handgun, every .38 caliber handgun on the planet is the possible murder weapon. The following pieces of evidence will labeled as possessing class or individual characteristics: a) An impression from a new automobile tire possesses class characteristics because it is the standard for every item with the same make and model. The FBI has created a database for examining class characteristics such as shoe and tire impressions, which can eventually be used to … The variety of physical evidence is virtually unlimited, as is the uniqueness of the crime. Scraping, swabbing, taping or collecting the item can accomplish collection of blood and body fluids. In combination with other evidence in a case, it can demonstrate that a limited number of people had all of the characteristics associated with evidence left by a perpetrator. Explain in detail. If evidence has class characteristics, it. This type of evidence may be used to narrow down a list of possible suspects. CLASS AND INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTIC EVIDENCE Class: a group of objects or persons with characteristic physical evidence common to it Examples include soil and hair Individual characteristics can be identified as having originated with a particular person or source Establishes individuality Examples include fingerprints and footprints Multiple fibers, 28 different types in all, were found on several of the victims. It can take on almost any form: as large as a building, as fl eeting as an odor, as small as a hair, or even submicroscopic, like DNA evidence. No two pairs of shoes or sets of car tires wear in exactly the same way. Explain in detail. If evidence has individual characteristics, it. : Testimonial evidence is generally much more reliable than physical evidence. Physical evidence is generally much more The overriding principle in analyzing individual characteristics is that no two things are exactly alike. Both class and individual evidence have value; however, it typically takes considerably more class evidence (and time for collection and analysis) to have the same weight and significance as a single item of individual evidence. No two pieces of glass fracture in the same manner. Class evidence is material in a criminal investigation that can be linked with a group of people, but not a specific individual. All characteristics that are common to a group are called class characteristics. If individual characteristics are present and the bags can be physically fit together, it can be stated that they were originally a single unit. T of F? The odds that someone else left behind that particular combination of fibers and hair are astronomical. Class characteristics are not unique to a particular object but place the particular bit of evidence into a group of objects. Explain. For example, given a box of gloves; each glove from that box will be the same. Matches at the individual level are called similarities, because in theory, there's no such thing as a perfect match. a) Individual characteristics c) Dual Characteristics b) Group Characteristics d) Class characteristics 20.What is the first stage in crime scene investigation according to Crime Search Study of 2003? A handful of class evidence is statistically equal to a single fingerprint. Evidence that can be linked to a unique, single, specific source is called _____ evidence. Also known as real evidence, _____ evidence can be tangible items that tend to prove some material fact. However, when multiple types of class evidence associate one suspect with the crime and crime scene, the weight of that evidence can make for a stronger case, which is what happened to Wayne Williams. Which of the following does not influence eye witness testimony? a. soil b. testimony c. fiber d. toolmarks. : Fingerprints would be considered individual characteristics. Hairs matching those of his dog also were found. The type of handgun with which a victim is shot is a class characteristic. Known or control samples could come from: Which of the following is not true about the value of physical evidence? C. Have no evidential value. Class evidence can have probative value. : Blood typing would be considered individual characteristic. b) A fingerprint will possess individual characteristics because they are specific to a person. No two guns mark a bullet the same way. The 12 characteristics of handwriting. The significance of the Ronald Cotton case: Which of the following is not considered physical evidence? Blue, yellow, white, and yellow-green fibers of various synthetic types were similar to fibers taken from Williams’s kitchen and backroom carpets, bedspread, throw rug, and car liner. For handwriting analysis, 12 characteristics are taken into consideration by the experts. Marks on surface B are grinding or manufacturer’s marks; BB is a nick in the edge of the tool. If a forensic scientist can piece together broke pieces of glass from a bottle that was used as a weapon, it has: The reliability of eye witness accounts can be affected by: A term that means supplying proof or evidence is: Evidence that has characteristics common to a group of similar objects is called _____ evidence. If class characteristics, size match and randomly acquired characteristics found in the footwear outsole can also be found in the crime scene impressions: Investigators can determine that the specific piece created the crime scene impression. Handwritten evidence could be a forged document, a letter, a random note, or anything else featuring handwritten words. Answer the following questions for each of your selections: How is it identified? Physical evidence can be any material or object (see Table 2.1). Physical evidence is evidence that is found at a scene that can be physically held or touched. They result from design features and are therefore determined prior to manufacture. Compared to the lower middle class, lower-class people have less of … The lower class is also referred to as the working class. : Physical evidence is also known as direct evidence. Differentiating Class and Individual Evidence, 10 Great Forensics Resources for Further Study. : A questioned sample is compared to a known sample to determine if relevant to a crime. If an evidence bullet and test bullets fired from a suspect firearm have the same class characteristics, the firearm examiner can conclude that the evidence bullet could have … DNA evidence may be obvious and collection of such objects as teeth, bone and hair is rather straightforward, though collection of evidence such as saliva or sweat or skin cells is more difficult. Toolmarks examination is an important discipline of criminalistics . When a piece of glass taken from a crime scene and a piece of glass removed from a suspect’s broken headlight fit neatly together like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, the pieces share a common source. In the examination of objects of physical evidence, class characteristics are important because they can. If evidence has class characteristics, it. a. A-AA portion of the tool mark reveals the class characteristics (size and shape) of the tool. The most individualizing types of evidence are fingerprints and DNA, because they’re pretty much like snowflakes in that no two people have the same prints or, with the exception of identical twins, the same DNA. Fig 19-2 Striated tool mark • … Individual characteristics narrow down the evidence to a single, individual source. Line quality. When the tool or object contacts the surface with sufficient force to create an indentation, the pattern of the tool is permanently reproduced onto that surface. B. Always be fitted together in the manner of a jigsaw puzzle. CLASS CHARACTERISTICS Class characteristics are measurable features of a specimen which indicate a restricted group source. In the examination of objects of physical evidence, class characteristics are important because they can: asked May 4, 2017 in Criminal Justice by Vivian97. How can class evidence be used to narrow a field of suspects? Although class evidence isn’t absolute proof that a suspect is connected with a particular location and each bit of class evidence taken separately may not be strong, a large number of matching pieces of class evidence significantly boosts the probability that a suspect was present at the crime scene. Thus even a popular shoe outsole design represents only a small subset of all manufactured shoes. Once these individual characteristics are narrowed down, they can be put into databases to find the perpetrator of a crime. Matches for evidence with individual characteristics do allow pinpointing a particular suspect. 19.Which of the following characteristics refers to properties of evidence that can be associated with a common source with an extremely high degree of certainty? Link a person to a crime with a high degree of certainty. Similarly, evidence that possesses individual characteristics may be referred to as individual evidence. Hair analysis can reveal all but which of the following? Alternatively, blood recovered from a crime scene that tests show is type B (a class characteristic) could have come from any of the tens of millions of people who share this blood type. Which of the following is not considered physical evidence? 1. Shoes come with thousands of different outsole designs and numerous sizes for each design. I have outlined each of them below. Which of the following would be considered individual evidence? Class characteristics are general and they are … • Evidence associated with a single source with an extremely high degree of probability • Examples may be matching the ridge characteristics of fingerprints, matching random striations from bullets, tire and footwear impressions Comparison - Class Characteristic • Evidence that can be associated with a group and never a single source Define the Following Terms: Class characteristics: General characteristics that determine a category of items or objects but cannot determine individuality. These fibers chemically and optically matched fibers taken from Williams’s home and cars. b. distinguish one item from another. c. be used to trace the item to its manufacturer. In December 1981, Williams was tried for the Atlanta Child Murders based largely on class fiber evidence. This relationship can be used as evidence to prove that the footwear's owner was at the crime scene. If evidence has class characteristics, it a. can exonerate innocent suspects b. has more probative value than direct evidence c. can link a suspect to a crime with certainty Because the subset of shoes that has a particular set of class characteristics is small, class characteristics are very p… B-BB reveals individual characteristics of this particular tool. These include caliber, number of lands and grooves, direction of twist of the lands and grooves, and widths of the lands and grooves. Williams was convicted. Can a type of physical evidence be considered a class characteristic at one crime scene and an individual characteristic at another? The most individualizing types of evidence are fingerprints and DNA, because they’re pretty much like snowflakes in that no two people have the same prints or, with the exception of identical twins, the same DNA. T of F? If the suspect has type B blood, he remains a suspect. 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