(2001) La democratie a-t-elle un avenir dans les pays du sud? We then question the category of Islam itself, taking different perspectives from Islamic studies, history, and the social sciences, and then paying particularly attention to debates about the definitions of Islam … This is the Islam of the "fundamentalists." The nature and ruthlessness of violence reflect their desire to gain public attention and are symptomatic of their desperation. Fundamentalism emerged in all the major world religions in the last quarter of the twentieth century and gained prominence and influence in the 1990s (Marty and Appleby 1991, 1992, 1993). A. —— 1985a Islam Dari Konservatism Sampai Fundamentalisme. Religious fundamentalism is a growing and important part of social change in Muslim countries. The role of sociologists and political analysts has therefore become relevant in providing a comprehensive frame for the great changes in Islam’s progress. Ibn Khaldun's sociological generalizations about the Muslim social formations of his time can be summarized in the following statements: These three statements describe the rise and fall of many historical Muslim social formations in the Middle East and North Africa. Department of Sociology, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide. —— 1962a Mohammed at Mecca. In Francis Robinson, ed., The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World. A large majority of Muslims do not belong to radical Islamic group. Crisis of Self-Image. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The old form of militancy identified enemies. However, his analysis led him to question the nature and direction of the relationship between Islamic doctrines and the social and economic conditions of pre-Islamic Meccan society. —— 1999b "Faithlines: Social Structure and Religiosity in Muslim Societies." Garnier-Flammarion, Paris. Mere repetitions of current ideas in the Koran would have rendered those ideas devoid of creative novelty, whereas sheer novelty would have made them unintelligible. Prologues Revue maghrebine du livre, 22 3 (Autumn). The Sociology of Islamprovides an accessible introduction to this emerging field of inquiry, teaching and debate. Asian Affairs Journal of the Royal Society for Asian Affairs 11(2):178–195. The social pervasiveness of Islam in the modern world and the sociopolitical and religious trajectories of contemporary Muslim societies raise important sociological questions. There are numerous Koranic injunctions to give effect to these changes (Ali 1970, pp. Torrey, Charles 1933 The Jewish Foundation of Islam. Using the current religious, social, and political conditions of Muslim countries as a kind of "natural experiment," the author is conducting a multicountry study to examine the three competing theories of Islamic fundamentalism outlined in the preceding section. What needs to be defined today is the Islamic Diaspora and Islamic nationalism, and what are the political procedures structuring Islam into political patterns like those of Morocco or Turkey. High Islam stresses the severely monotheistic and nomocractic nature of Islam, is mindful of the prohibition of claims of mediation between God and the individual, and generally is oriented toward puritanism and scripturalism. Levy, Reuben 1972 The Social Structure of Islam. 1994 Muslim Communities in North America. Other Islamic intellectuals subscribe to a variety of reformist elements and sometimes are very critical of the Ulema, but the reforms they are interested in are mostly social and political and leave the traditional worldview of Islam unchanged. Social phenomena seem to obey laws that while not as absolute as those governing natural phenomena, are sufficiently constant to cause social events to follow regular, well-defined patterns and sequences. Cairo: American University of Cairo Press. Lahore, Pakistan: Islamic Publications. The solution would require more open and stronger political structures in Muslim countries to legally and politically pursue solutions to the problems posed by the new militancy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Another scholarly tradition has approached the analysis of the early development of Islam in terms of sociological and anthropological concepts and traces the origins of Islam primarily to the change in social organization in pre-Islamic Meccan society caused by the spread of trade. While Islam has borne the marks of its Arabian origin throughout its history, in regard to the position held by women in his community, Mohammed was able to introduce profound changes (Levy 1972; Rahman 1966; Ali 1970). Islamic Militancy: A New Paradigm? Encyclopedia of Sociology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Ideological parallels to Christianity can be found, but they operate in a contrasted institutional melieu" (1983, p. 6). Comparative Studies in Society and History 36(3): 463–487. A large part of the book is author’s conversation with the tradition of scholarship around the study of His explanation is that the Muslim conquest implied an extension of its religious and sociocultural pattern. New York: Harcourt Brace. Charnay, J.-P. (1994) Sociologie religieuse de l’Islam (Religious Sociology of Islam). What are the implications of this for Islamic radicalism? If one contrasts fundamentalism with laxity along one dimension and social radicalism with traditionalism along another, according to Gellner, one gets four types of Muslim societies or social formations. Essai sur la normativite en islam (Law’s Sake: Essay on Normativeness in Islam). Encyclopedia.com. Ali Shariati (1933-1977) has been called the "Ideologue of the Iranian Revolution." The first factor inhibits the handing over of spheres of life to nonreligious authority, and the second makes it difficult to offer rival versions of the blueprint. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. (January 12, 2021). In Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, eds., Fundamentalisms and Society. For example, the Malikite school is present in the Maghreb region and the Hanbalite school extends over the Middle West area (Mashreq), whereas the Hanbalite and Shafiite schools are in the areas of the so called peripheral Islam (Central Asia, the Balkans, the Indian subcontinent, etc). Fundamentalisms and Society. Building on the work of Ibn Khaldun, he postulates a dialectic between city and tribe, each with its own form of religion. A multidisciplinary approach to Islam in the social sciences gives an account of the present complexities and of the phenomena still in progress within Muslim societies. Castles, S. 1989 Here for Good: Western Europe's New Ethnic Minorities. However, the vagueness of these edicts has given the Ulema greater authority to interpret them as local custom demands. The need for a common authority generates the state, which is to society as form is to matter and is inseparable from it. Modern Islamism, critics argue, is a political ideology and is distinct from anything in Muslim history, which in recent years has become a dominant idiom for the expression of various and sometimes contradictory interests, aspirations, and frustrations (Zubiada 1995). Arkoun, M. (1970) Comment lire le Coran? According to Islamic tradition, God chose a man, Mohammad, who through the angel Gabriel’s revelation (or tanzil, which means Word descent) would become God’s messenger and prophet. Ajami Fouad 1993 "The Summarising." Watt, W. Montgomery 1954 "Economic and Social Aspects of the Origin of Islam." The evidence shows that the majority of American Muslims are not active participants in the organized religious life of mosque or Islamic center, but continue to identify themselves as Muslims in a social setting characterized by prejudice and misunderstanding (Haddad and Smith 1994; Haddad and Lummis 1987). London: Mansell. While varying in scope and intensity from country to country, these reforms have been initiated in most Muslim countries. Rodinson, (1980) La Fascination de l’Islam (Enchantment of Islam). Marty, Martin E. and R. Scott Appleby, eds. perspective and present some of its distinctive characteristics. For the Shiites, on the contrary, the cycle of prophecy does not end, but continues throughout history. The Annales school reflects a more complex position, in which religious matters are defined on the basis of material relations. Gardell, Mattias 1994 "The Sun of Islam Will Rise in the West: Minister Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam in Latter Days." The notion of inimitability refers to the notions of fascination and amazement: the divine language interrogates man, as the creator asks him to witness the eternity of his mystery (gaib) and the mystery of creation. ." Islamic scholarship thus became rigid, fossilized, and largely removed from the intellectual tradition of the Koran. New York: Oxford University Press. Its main goal is to establish the Sharia (Islamic law) as the explicit, comprehensive, and exclusive legal basis of society (Marty and Appleby 1991, 1992; Beinin and Stork 1997; Esposito 1983). Decidedly rooted in the sociological perspective, SOI takes an … Chouemi, M. (1966) Le Verbe dans le Coran (The Verb in the Koran), n.VI serie 3: Etudes et Documents. The careless use of the term sociologist is very common.Magzine and newspaper writers, social workers, labor leaders, government officials, social critics etc may be described incorrectly as sociologist. —— 1991 "The Muslim Minority-Majority Relations in Australian Society: A Sociological Analysis." Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Their influence has shaped the analytic approach to historical events, resulting in an increasing focus on the relationship between social and economic factors and historical events. This objective investigation may include the use of both quantitative methods (surveys, polls, demographic and census analysis) and qualitative approaches such as participant observation, interviewing, and analysis of archival, historical and documentary materials. Under modern conditions, the pattern of interaction between the two religious traditions has been transformed. His reinter pretation of Islam in modern sociologica…, Jihad Thi… It is beyond the scope of this article to provide an exhaustive overview of how Muslim society and Islam have been treated in social theory (for studies of the Islamic revolution in Iran, see Shariati 1979; Fischer 1980; Arjonaud 1988). As Geertz observes, "Religious faith, even when it is fed from a common source, is as much a particularising force as a generalizing one, and indeed whatever universality a given religious tradition manages to attain arises from its ability to engage a widening set of individual, even idiosyncratic, conceptions of life and yet somehow sustain and elaborate them all" (Geertz 1968, p. 14). —— 1999 "The Sociology of Islamic Social Structure." Are there different types of Islamic fundamentalism? In this way history becomes tradition (Sunna) and creates an individual and collective model for the whole community. Galli­mard, Paris. This debate between nationalists and Islamicists continues and according to some evidence is becoming an important part of the political agenda of Islamic fundamentalists (Hardacre 1993; Haeri 1993). Ayubi, Nazih N. 1991 Political Islam: Religion and Politics in the Arab World. But orientalism certainly lacked the material history of the Muslim world, pro viding for it a series of interpreting grids, in the same way that the historical method did in the development of the western world. Kuala Lumpur: Ikraq. Like Christianity and Judaism, Islam is an Abrahamic religion based on prophecy, prophethood, and the revealed text. Berkeley, Calif.: Mizan Press. —— 1992 The Glory and the Power: The Fundamentalist Challenge to the Modern World. The American Muslim Council estimates the figure to be around 5.2 million (Duran 1997). Pirenne places this specificity of Islam in opposition with the conquest of the Germans who, on the contrary, integrated and embraced the linguistic, cultural, and religious patterns of the people they conquered and who converted therefore to Christianity. However, even his critics agree that Gellner's model of Muslim society is the most ambitious attempt in modern sociology to identify the internal religious dynamics that play a significant and in certain conditions, critical role in determining the political character and socioreligious trajectories of Muslim societies. teaching and debate the study is located at the crucial intersection between a variety of disciplines thus the sociology of islam in the present study comes to focus on the human ability to build inhabit and shape the civil world and the network of relations to control violence and foster cooperation the two factors knowledge and power and The state taxed both Muslims and non-Muslims, in ways patterned after pre-Islamic models but to new ends. Rahman, F. 1966 Islam. This generated highly emotional and divisive debates between the Islamic scholars and the nationalist leaders that centered on the issues of marriage and family law and the role and status of women in a modern independent Muslim state (see Esposito 1982; Haddad and Esposito 1998). (Eds.) Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell. New York: Oxford University Press. One strand of scholarship has focused on the analysis of various factors in the origins and early development of Islam. The identity of a Sunni Muslim is not only founded upon the Koran and the prophetic tradition, but also upon his belonging to a certain juridical school which conditions his whole existence, from birth to death, through rites and religious praxis. This social pervasiveness makes Islam especially interesting in the sociology of religion (Gellner 1983, p.2). It discusses the long-term dynamics of Islam as both a religion and as a social, political and cultural force. Another recent development has been a revival of interest in the "social project" of Islam. Societies are not static. New York: Oxford University Press. Pan-Islam is the ideology that calls for the unity and cooperation of Muslims worldwide on the basis of their shared Islamic identity. The Koranic response to specific conditions is the product of a "coherent philosophy" and "attitude toward life" that Rahman calls "the intellectual tradition" of Islam. Except for the first Surah, Al Fatiha (”the opening”) that is Meccan, all the initial Surahs are from the Medina period, in that they essentially define the social organization of Islam and its ethical and juridical principles. Watt argues that there was nothing inevitable about the development of a world religion from the economic and social circumstances of early seventh-century Mecca. "Attitudes towards Veiling and Patriarchy in Four Muslim Societies." Or is the ideology of Islam a creative factor that made a contribution to the course of events? In its general sense, purification is the opposite of syncretism: It is the elimination of religious elements originating in a traditional religion. One strand is characterized by "scripturalist puritanism" and represented by the Ulema. A new approach to these societies was shaped in the field of social and cultural anthropology, where in fact more relevant methodological changes appeared. 55–59). High Islam is primarily urban, and folk Islam is primarily tribal and rural. Beyer, Peter 1994 Religion and Globalization. Through systematic and comparative studies of Muslim societies, modern sociological scholarship can lay the foundations for a more informed understanding of the social reality of the Muslim world. 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