Tackling occupational segregation—many men working in occupations with other men, and many women working with other women—is an important part of eliminating the gender wage gap. Asian women are considerably less likely than other women to work in ‘office and administrative support’ occupations; and. [9] When part-time workers are included, 6.0 percent of women work in nontraditional occupations for women, and 5.2 percent of men work in nontraditional occupations for men; source as note 7 above. “Usual weekly earnings of employed full-time wage and salary workers by intermediate occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity and Non-Hispanic ethnicity, Annual Average 2018.”. That is, even if men and women were found in the occupations in proportion to their total workforce, gender gaps would not be reduced to any great extent. Gender pay gap varies greatly by occupation By Katharina Wrohlich and Aline Zucco The German labor market is characterized by marked occupational segregation between women and men. The gender pay gap also varies by occupation. The biggest part of the gender pay gap is caused by education, choice of occupation and sector combined. All of the most common occupations with too few women workers to calculate the gender earnings ratio are middle-skill occupations, which require more than high school but less than a bachelor’s degree; across all middle-skill occupations, workers in female-dominated occupations earn only 66 percent of what workers in male-dominated occupations earn.[12]. [i] This fact sheet shows median weekly earnings for full-time (35 hours or more per week) wage and salaried workers ages 16 and older (excluding the self-employed) based on Current Population Survey (CPS) annual averages for the calendar year 2019. Unemployment rates in occupations by gender; Gender differences in the average working week; What are the best paid jobs? Source: IWPR calculation of data from the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2018. When part-time workers are included, the share of women workers working in female-dominated occupations is lower, at 38.5 percent; the share of men workers in male-dominated occupations is also lower, at 41.8 percent; IWPR calculation based on U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. See Ariane Hegewisch and Adiam Tesfaselassie. The main reason that the gender pay gap in this occupation has shrunk is the declining pay … < http://iwpr.org/publications/gender-wage-gap-2018/ >. [13] The 2018 federal poverty threshold for a family of four was $25,465 ($490 per week for 52 weeks); see U.S. Census Bureau. Copyright 2020 - Institute for Women's Policy Research | All Rights Reserved | Designed by, Center on the Economics of Reproductive Health, on The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation 2019, Building a Better Future for Women in New Orleans Post COVID-19: Opportunities for Women in Skilled Trade and Technical Jobs, Women’s Share of Unemployment Insurance Claimants varies Strongly Across States, Build(ing) the Future: Bold Policies for a Gender-Equitable Recovery, Despite modest employment gains, women still 5.5 million jobs below pre-pandemic level. Data from Earnest showed the job title with the greatest gender pay gap was medical physicians. 2019. [ii] The median weekly gender earnings ratio for all full-time weekly workers was 81.5 percent, a weekly gender wage gap of 18.5 percent (Table 1).[iii]. How the gender pay gap is calculated. It is affected by things like the proportion of men and women working part-time, and the proportion of men and women working in different industries or occupations. [5] See Ariane Hegewisch, Marc Bendick, Barbara Gault, and Heidi Hartmann. The median earnings in female dominated occupations are lower than those in male domi-nated professions. Enter your job in the interactive tool to find out. However, these factors—particularly occupational differences between women and men—are themselves affected by gender bias. This indicator provides a measure of the relative difference between the earnings of men and those of women. Data to allow checking whether these differences are statistically significant are not published. Nearly every state has narrowed its gender pay gap since 2010. Male social workers earn $935 per week and female social workers earn $900 per week. “Household Data Annual Averages Table 11. [iv] In general, the highest paid occupations have the biggest gender wage gaps and the lowest paid occupations have the smallest gaps. Occupational gender segregation and the gender wage gap have both declined over the period examined in this study, as is apparent from LFS data presented in Figure 1. Which jobs have the longest weekly hours? you think of a man and woman who work exactly the same job at exactly the same place [19] Women need better access to well-paid jobs that are currently primarily done by men, and they need better terms and conditions, and better pay, for the jobs that are primarily done by women. A further 23.3 million women are in occupations paying them full-time weekly earnings below SNAP eligibility, compared with 11.7 million men in occupations paying full-time weekly earnings below SNAP eligibility. The worst paid jobs; What jobs have the most growth? “Gender pay gap is worse than thought: Study shows women actually earn half the income of men,” NBC announced recently in reference to a report titled “Still a Man’s Labor Market” by the Washington-based Institute for Women’s Policy Research, which found that women's income was 51 percent less than men’s earnings.. Too often it is assumed that this gap is not evidence of discrimination, but is instead a statistical artifact of failing to adjust for factors that could drive earnings differences between men and women. Consultants and accountants both showed a much smaller gap… The occupation with the highest gender gap in favor of women is ‘counselors’, with a median weekly gender earnings ratio of 106.3 percent, a 6.3 percent gender wage gap in favor of women. [17] If women were paid the same per hour as men of the same age, education, and rural or urban residence, poverty rates for working women would be cut in half.[18]. The distribution of women across the occupations varies for each group (Table 3): The size of the overall wage gap is heavily dependent on the racial and ethnic composition of the working population. 43% based on part-time employees. The largest gender pay gap among all employees is in carpenters and joiners (44%) and energy plant operatives (41%). [1] The occupation with the largest gender wage gap is ‘securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents’ in 2018; women’s median weekly earnings for full-time work in this occupation were just 63.9 percent of those of men’s, corresponding to a gender wage gap of 36.1 percent. Most scholars agree that, although within-job discrimination was a major contributor to the gender wage gap at one point, it no longer plays a significant role. Undervalued and Underpaid in America: Women in Low-Wage, Female-Dominated Jobs Washington, DC: Institute for Women’s Policy Research (accessed March 2019). Pathways to Equity: Narrowing the Wage Gap by Improving Women’s Access to Good Middle-Skill Jobs. The gender pay gap is defined as the relative difference in the average gross earnings of women and men within an economy. After all, the idea of women making about $0.78 for every dollar earned by men has been drilled into us throughout … The median pay for white men in our sample is $74,500, thus the controlled median pay for black women is $72,300 – 97 percent of white men’s earnings in the same job. Data for both women’s and men’s median weekly earnings for full-time work are available for 125 occupations. 81% based on full-time employees. Three of the 20 most common occupations for men have median male weekly earnings above $1,500, including one, ‘chief executives,’ at$2,488 per week; none of the most common occupations for women has female median weekly earnings at that level. See Ariane Hegewisch and Heidi Hartmann. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor (accessed March 2019). … Investing in the public care infrastructure will not only improve the pay and economic security of workers in those jobs, it will also make it easier for women and men with care responsibilities to stay economically active and advance in their careers. The latter typically takes into account differences in hours worked, occupations chosen, education and job experience. These findings suggest a gender stereotype process for the gender gap … The gender wage gap is real—and hurts women across the board. Employed persons by detailed occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity.” (accessed March 28, 2019). The poverty threshold refers to annual, and SNAP eligibility to monthly, income; using weekly earnings to calculate a poverty wage assumes that a worker can get full-time work for four weeks a month and 52 weeks a year; this may not always be possible in occupations characterized by unpredictable schedules and considerable fluctuations in demand for labor and, hence, unstable earning opportunities. Median full-time weekly earnings for men range from $2,488 for ‘chief executives’ to $518 for ‘cooks’ (Table 2). In 2018, women earned 85% of what men earned, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of median hourly earnings of both full- and part-time workers in the United States. Table 3 provides median weekly earnings for women and men for full-time work by race and ethnicity in seven broad occupational groups. 2017. The gender pay gap … While low-wage work can be found across the economy, it is particularly prevalent in jobs that involve the education and care of children, the elderly, and the infirm, work that traditionally was done by women at home, and often continues to be done almost exclusively by women when it is paid. “Poverty Thresholds.” < https://www.census.gov/data/tables/time-series/demo/income-poverty/historical-poverty-thresholds.html > (retrieved March 2019). Table 1: The gender pay gap among full-time employees fell in seven of the nine main occupation groups Gender pay gap for median gross hourly earnings (excluding overtime) for full-time employees by occupation group, percentage point change, year ending April 2019; Occupation Hourly earnings (£) Gender pay gap Change from 2018; Managers, directors and senior officials: 22.07: 15.9: … The Gender Pay Gap by Occupation: A Test of the Crowding Hypothesis Solberg, Eric J. The gender wage gap affects all types of women, not only those who earn middle-class wages. Table 2 shows the median weekly earnings and the gender earnings ratios in the 20 most common occupations for full-time working men. [i] The occupation with the largest gender wage gap is ‘financial managers’; women’s 2019 median weekly earnings for full-time work in this occupation were just 63.6 percent of those of men’s, a gender wage gap … “Household Data Annual Averages Table 39. Key findings ... occupation and gender, April 2019 . E. Casey Foundation, Ford Foundation, and NoVo Foundation. Notes: These data reflect a race earnings gap in addition to a gender earnings gap. Earnings ratios are based on median annual earnings of full-time, year-round workers, 15 years old and over. Search and compare gender pay gap data Employers with 250 or more employees have published their figures comparing men and women’s average pay across the organisation. 69%. Yes. The gender wage gap and occupational segregation are persistent features of the U.S. labor market. [16] See Hegewisch and Hartmann 2019, at note 3 above. There is also a gender gap in vocational degree (12%) and … After considerable progress in the 1980s and 1990s, progress towards the greater gender integration of occupations has stalled, approximately at the same time as progress towards closing the gender wage gap. Ukraine. Half of the gender wage gap since 1980 can be attributed to women working in different occupations and industries than men, making it the single largest factor. Data for both women’s and men’s median weekly earnings for full-time work are available for 125 occupations. Figure 12: Gender pay gap for median full-time hourly earnings (excluding overtime), by major occupation group, UK, April 2015 . The two occupations that saw an increase are professional occupations, and administrative and secretarial; each experienced a small percentage increase to the gender pay gap estimate that is below that recorded in 2018. More education leads to higher earnings but the gender pay gap is wider among men and women with a bachelor’s degree than among those without. IWPR is a 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization that also works in affiliation with the Program on Gender Analysis in Economics at American University. under $20,000. The gender pay gap is the difference between the average (mean or median) earnings of men and women across a workforce. Although the gender pay gap is in favour of females when looking at all full-time employees, overall this is not the case within occupations. The gender pay gap in the United States is the ratio of female-to-male median or average (depending on the source) yearly earnings among full-time, year-round workers. [5] For example, women ‘elementary and middle school teachers’—one of the most common occupations for women and a female-dominated field—earn $982 per week (compared with $1,148 for men; Table 1). The gender wage gap among the 20 most common occupations is largest for ‘financial managers,’ with a gender earnings ratio for full-time work of 70.7 percent (corresponding to a wage gap of 29.3 percent, which amounts to $522 dollars less per week for women than men) and the second largest gap is for ‘retail salespersons’ with a ratio of 71.1 percent (corresponding to a wage gap of 28.9 percent or $221 less per week for women than men). From 2017, if you are an employer who has a … The gender pay gap is the percentage difference between men's and women’s median hourly earnings. As a result, different groups of women experience very different gaps in pay. The median weekly earnings of Black and Hispanic women are at or lower than the federal poverty threshold for a family of four in ‘service’ occupations, and the median weekly earnings of Hispanic women is just $9 above the poverty threshold in ‘production, transportation, and material moving’ occupations. Source: IWPR calculation of data from the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2018. Arkansas is the most improved. [14] When including part- as well as full-time workers, 9.2 million women work in occupations with median weekly earnings for women for full-time work below the poverty threshold for a family of four, and just under a million (989,012) men work in occupations with median weekly earnings for full-time work for men below the poverty threshold. The gender wage gap differs by race and ethnicity. Table A-2. Women earn the smallest share of a similar male coworkers’ salary when they pursue jobs or work in industries dominated by men. [14] Workers in these occupations likely experience greater poverty than suggested by their weekly wages. . This occupation group has the highest median pay of any occupation (£21.90 per hour, excluding overtime, compared with £15.07 among all employee jobs) and therefore has a strong impact on the gender pay gap. In fact, across all full-time, full-year workers in the ACS for 2009 to 2011, only 15 percent of the . The occupation with the 10th-smallest gender pay gap is social worker. www.equalityhumanrights.com Published: August 2017 8 20.7% in 1993, however less so than the general gap. Gender pay gap for elementary occupations in South Korea 2009-2019 Gender pay gap for professionals in South Korea 2009-2019 Gender pay gap for clerical support workers in South Korea 2009-2019 The wage gaps between Black female and male workers and Hispanic female and male workers are smaller than between all women and men, largely because the men in these groups have very low earnings, too.[16]. The "Gender Pay Gap" Isn't What You Think It Is The Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) conducts and communicates research to inspire public dialogue, shape policy, and improve the lives and opportunities of women of diverse backgrounds, circumstances, and experiences. [iv] The other occupations where women’s median weekly earnings are marginally higher than men’s and the median weekly gender earnings ratio for full-time work is higher than 100 percent are ‘first-line supervisors of non-retail sales workers’ (with a gender earnings ratio of 101.4% and median weekly earnings for women of $1,173), ‘stock clerks and order fillers’ (101.5% and $605, respectively), ‘industrial production managers’ (101.9% and $1,497, respectively; this occupation is comparatively small for women),  and ‘combined food preparation and serving workers, including fast food’ (102.2% and $467, respectively. The Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998 defines a nontraditional occupation for women as one where women are fewer than 25 percent of workers; female-dominated occupations are those in which at least three of four workers are women; male-dominated occupations are those in which at least three of four workers are men. N/A=No data or does not meet BLS publication criteria. [12] See Hegewisch et al. The three largest occupations—‘elementary and middle school teachers,’ ‘registered nurses,’ and ‘secretaries and administrative assistants’—together employ 12.7 percent of all women. Search. gender wage gap within occupations are far larger than those across occupations. You might find this hard to believe. In this role men make a median $1,629 per week, and women make $1,013. Many of these jobs are low paid even though workers are expected to have at least a high school diploma and some post-secondary credentials. “The Gender Wage Gap: Extent, Trends, and Explanations” Journal of Economic Literature 55(3): 789-865. The gender earnings gap is magnified by a racial and ethnic earnings gap. We look at the gender pay gap by occupations, using the … Eight of the occupations are nontraditional for women,[10] and in five of the 20—‘construction laborers,’ ‘carpenters,’ ‘grounds maintenance workers,’ ‘automotive service technicians and mechanics,’ and ‘electricians,’—there are too few women workers to estimate their median weekly earnings. Low earnings are a significant problem for both male and female full-time workers, but poverty-level wages are much more likely for women than men. Note: Earnings data are published only for occupations with an estimated minimum of 50,000 workers. The two occupations that saw an increase are professional occupations, and administrative and secretarial; each experienced a small percentage increase to the gender pay gap … Household Data Annual Averages. “Occupational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap: A Job Half Done.” Scholar’s Paper to Commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the Publication of the Report of President Kennedy’s Commission on the Status of American Women. IWPR’s work is supported by foundation grants, government grants and contracts, donations from individuals, and contributions from organizations and corporations. (2016) at note 4 above; calculations based on median annual earnings for full-time year-round workers. More than fifty years after the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 made discrimination illegal, a gender earnings gap remains. A positive gender pay gap among full-time employees exists in each of the nine main occupation groups, but it has fallen since 2019 in all but two. [1] This fact sheet shows median weekly earnings for full-time (35 hours or more per week) wage and salaried workers ages 16 and older (excluding the self-employed) based on Current Population Survey (CPS) annual averages for the calendar year 2018. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex.” (accessed March 20, 2019). INTRODUCTION It is clear that occupational assignment plays a major role in the distribution of wages and hence it may influence the existence and measurement of the gender pay gap. 2 Gender pay gap. (The sample size in the Current Population Survey is not sufficient to provide earnings estimates by race and ethnicity at a more detailed occupational level, or for other racial or ethnic groups.). [3] Another measure of the gender earnings ratio based on median annual earnings for full-time, year-round work, which includes the self-employed and annual bonus and commission payments, was 81.1 percent (a gender wage gap of 18.9 percent) in 2017; 2018 data will not be published until fall 2019. Disaggregating the data into occupation groups shows that on average, females earned less than males in eight of the nine occupation groups. Across all construction trade occupations, women’s median weekly earnings were $785, compared with $834 for men, a gender earnings ratio of 94 percent.[11]. [2] The occupation of ‘securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents’ is 33.5 percent female, with median weekly earnings for full-time work of $1,047 for women and $1,639 for men; three other occupations—‘physicians and surgeons,’ ‘sales and related workers, all others,’ and ‘credit counselors and loan officers’—have a gender earnings ratio of 67 percent or less (of 66.7, 66.0, and 65.7 percent respectively) ; men’s median weekly earnings are higher than $1,000 in each of these; IWPR calculation based on U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2018), as above. The Institute works with policymakers, scholars, and public interest groups to design, execute, and disseminate research and to build a diverse network of individuals and organizations that conduct and use women-oriented policy research. Gender pay gap for elementary occupations in South Korea 2009-2019 Gender pay gap for professionals in South Korea 2009-2019 Gender pay gap for clerical support workers in South Korea 2009-2019 That translates to women earning 96.2% of what men earn. Women with MBAs -- a degree that can open doors to high-paying jobs in finance … [19] See Ariane Hegewisch and Heidi Hartmann. “Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by detailed occupation and sex.” (retrieved March 2019). However, whichever way it is measured, the gender pay gap still remains. N/A=No data or does not meet BLS publication criteria. [i] The occupation with the largest gender wage gap is ‘financial managers’; women’s 2019 median weekly earnings for full-time work in this occupation were just 63.6 percent of those of men’s, a gender wage gap of 36.4 percent. The gender wage gap is unadjusted and is calculated as the difference between average earnings of men and average earnings of women expressed as a percentage of average earnings of men. All but two of the 10 occupations with the largest gender wage gaps have earnings that are higher than median earnings for all full-time workers ($917). Financial support was provided by the Annie. Women earn less than men in 439 of 446 major U.S. occupations, a Wall … Among all occupations, almost 4 million women full-time workers are in occupations with median weekly earnings for women that are lower than 100 percent of the federal poverty threshold for a family of four, $490 per week in 2018; this compares with 0.74 million men in occupations where median weekly earnings for men are below this poverty threshold. The gender wage gap appears to vary in size by education level, employment sector, occupation, and job title. The gender pay gap across the architecture industry of 10.4% (median) and 15.2% (mean) in favour of men is a reflection of the gender imbalance at higher levels within practices. The government now requires British companies with more than 250 employees to publish their gender pay gap data, but this will not happen in 2020 because of the coronavirus pandemic. [6] Teachers at the same level are generally paid similarly, and it is possible that the weekly wage differential of $166 shown here is due to women and men working at different job levels within this broad category for teachers, or possibly to more men than women taking on extra duties such as coaching or leading special programs. Household Data Annual Averages. In … 2014. ( accessed March 2019 ). ” < https: //www.fns.usda.gov/snap/eligibility > ( accessed March 2019 ). ( retrieved March 2019 ). ” < https: //www.fns.usda.gov/snap/eligibility > ( March! 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