It’s mainly used by residents of low … Abstract . ��A�eТ�x�>���m�?���hD����eJ���I-��A�Y���1��)0=�[s@�5�U����b���9���K��9��V$�9!�[���j��w�?.�a������!� (�� The State of Water Quality in Nairobi River, Ken ya 1 Damaris Mbui, 1,2 Emily Chebet*, 1 Geoffrey Kamau, 2 Joshua Kibet* 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi, P .O. fyþ1u`3Apt€˜h-?¿KÐܯ•Càþs`qÂäÿM~¿»÷£¹(üûÁ…„ÿÙ_ÛɃ1/‰¥¥_³œX : +254 20 762 1234 Fax: +254 20 762 3927 e-mail: publications@unep.org www.unep.org www.unep.org The pollution is mind-boggling,” says Dorothy McCormick, a Nairobi university economics researcher and author of books on African transport. It’s mainly used by residents of low-income settlements as a source of water for cleaning homes, bathing and for watering crops. Research Chem. From cleaning the river to ensuring that sewage units are efficient to seeing that policies involving wastewater disposal into the river are adhered to, from enforcing policies on how industries should manage their wastewater to providing sanitation facilities in informal settlements, her recommendations are guidelines for saving the Nairobi. 889 0 obj <> endobj Heavy metals are known to accumulate in the plants then passed to the humans through the food chain. Water supply and sanitation in Nairobi is characterised by achievements and challenges. Kangundo River Bridge is composed of deeply weathered Nairobi phonolites. Water from Kikuyu, Kawangware, Chiromo, Eastleigh, Njiru and Fourteen Falls along the Nairobi River was analyzed for the presence of metals. Ö͑cöTRȋ,&9;âˆ}cϝÛHÄ>ؔ~M©È&Á¤ÀÈ¿ß*ïÌmtñ]tÑ`póa;[žˆ‡iÅò•°)wfä@Â>‹acý‹°_†`_§1"W3D¸¢±ÞeÒ¬{8ˆ‡‹)%®Ûf¶¬RxÓQy˜ì•x\Y.­À(ÁP®ì´…ë5“ñzUøe[.MwT6Â^$6‚Eõܖ×5¾^ɘS*7'0¶O=g»TèUÈ|šsf‹Dè"çxŸsç– reports related to the Nairobi River Basin Project (NRBP)-Phase II. But that was then. Ndarugu River is one of the main sources of fresh water for domestic use to people of many villages and towns along the river bank. The Nairobi River, a tributary of the Athi River which passes through several densely populated areas, is one of the major contributors to pollution within the Athi River ecosystem. CITY OF NAIROBI ENVIRONMENT OUTLOOK v FOREWORD Nairobi,.like.many.cities.in.Africa.is.experiencing.rapid.population.growth ..Combined.with.the. Njunguna (1978) also added that pollution in the river (Nairobi-Athi-Sabaki) was chiefly due to domestic waste, industrial wastes and runoff (both rural and urban). Water sources near the dumpsites are used as domestic water source for the people living near such sites. How Bad is Air Pollution in Kenya? Most of the metal levels in water were below the critical limit of World Health Organization and Kenya Bureau of Standards except for lead, chromium, iron and manganese. endstream endobj 893 0 obj <>stream A Study was conducted to determine the level of pollution in the Nairobi River. Despite various attempts to restore it over the past decades, the river continues to choke with garbage, industrial waste, agro and petro chemicals, heavy metals and other pollutants, which have caused the extinction of aquatic life and turned the river into an eyesore. Introduction Water pollution is the result of human activities that makes the water dangerous to human beings, unfit for industrial use and adversely affects the aquatic fauna and flora among others. R� ���:�h��w�|�CP��$��~�CR�Y�!�K{�]$�6��$f�20N�X���h��x��&k��v.�[�9�t/N��0��Q�$a?LA�0'ev��^d��!��q&���ԳN$G;x�TZQͥѢe�$��܎q|F,%��J��5J����十��m]�c��� ���Ǭ_���9#S��f)����~�������Yt�|�N���Zب:lT��U���%oz��a`#��\��^����o��:3;\�~l���m�e��e6�2D���,Ӫ���Ic�:e�|���|8���^����_t rrying activities in the construction of Nairobi/Waiyaki highway. endstream endobj 890 0 obj <>/Metadata 41 0 R/Outlines 59 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/Pages 885 0 R/StructTreeRoot 74 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 891 0 obj <>/Font<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Type/Page>> endobj 892 0 obj <>stream h�b```�rvM``��0pL00 re���f~HnJ{,%)rGH�����R����j�#�,��@&cS.C@�30���@�`Tf�a`��T��tZ���"7N3��jy��� E@��i�d+ ������m��U�� �) 5, DO, QUAL2K, River Pollution, Water Quality Modeling 1. These pollutants can affect the health of those who rely on the river, or live close to it. Vk�٧���)��\�a��TB�?,-�d*b���:�������>.����g;\�'�����4]�,�H�e www.intechopen.com. The sources of water for Nairobi River sub-basins are the Ondiri springs, the Kabete and Karura forests, the Ngong hills, and all the streams which join Recently, there has been growing public outrage about the pollution of urban waterways1 in Nairobi city. Nema has asked the public to report cases of pollution and aid in efforts to rehabilitate the river. Its effects have been so dire that Near the Nairobi suburb of Kamulu they observed extensive sand-mining, which has further disturbed and eroded the riverbed ecosystem. “There are 16 times as … toxic heavy metal pollution from the wastes. h�bbd``b`z$��e �" "V��y@�y+��D�A�Y�D&���������b``�M���� � �q š¹+MabÂD5°ˆÒXæ멼. sewerage matter is drained into the rivers.Surely this inhuman.The water in Mathare and Nairobi river is a good case scenario to this.Almost all the household surrounding this rivers dispose of their toilet effluents into the rivers.This creates a health hazard and possible future outcomes of diseases like cholera ,typhoid and bilharzia. 9(1 1): November 2016 579 ISSN 0974-4169 (P rint) www.ajrconline.org 0974-4150 (O nline) RESEARCH ARTICLE The State of Water Quality in Nairobi River, Kenya Water pollution often arises as a consequence, and not only does a low quality supply result, but there may also be a major reduction in its quantity. Other research reports which indicate water quality deterioration in Kenya and the study basins are those by Njunguna (1978) and Ongwenyi (1979). A lot happens along the course of the Nairobi River as it makes its way from the north west to the south east of the city. If the Nairobi River were a human being, it would have choked to death by now. %%EOF 902 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<47BFF0B1CB591342A7CE31F5A7D770E5>]/Index[889 22]/Info 888 0 R/Length 72/Prev 162215/Root 890 0 R/Size 911/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream A Snapshot of the World’s Water Quality: Towards a global assessment UNEP report A Snapshot of the World’s Water Quality: Towards a global assessment United Nations Environment Programme P.O. Njunguna (1978) also noted that pollution in the river (Nairobi-Athi-Sabaki) was chiefly due to domestic h�Ԗmk�0���>n�`�K�Rh���2��J?x�Iy)���?��R�N��6��"Y��|zr)���J�R7(�s�&Lr�&�0-Ac �L�IJu6���`�϶�ԭ1����"��N�UI�:d���b6/��"��W���&.�ٖ�׫��_���)eQG8u7�2OP���m��ӯcԏ�M^N���z���tWed(M��lQL�V�ENh2*��w„N�Ϗ9�Bʛ�\o��N�2��n��q0�z���d=-V��X]��Ex�m9�g���w�Gpǘ|�j�T2z�YB>��S����\�i9��c���(B�Q��0�~�[�� �h JC����N�$�1t'n=��]��\3�6E[��.����go瞕�{qp#qPmJY�$��t����zn�����t�T} �O%��`T��(�⓫\�� .�%�s�C�Еq����B�'� x�d}F��y�٭��`M���P�;���j��7j'*�HM _K"�H$����!Y_"M�� _�E��)P��Jh�#ӽJ ��y@.�:Ⱦ��:�[pO`Wv`���ԕ�(u��~���t�N� �m�c-��m(L�n��ޅ�/���C}�@g����y�X�.�~1n�NI�5#�ė��K����Ϥ�[�Γ���%d���㸅�#m;����mS{l�����P~�l���e����'j Asian J. The study covered four sampling sites located along the river, stretching from upstream at Ondiri swamp then moving to Museum Hill Bridge then further down to Race Course and finally downstream at Outer Ring Road Bridge. Email hnnjenga@uonbi.ac.ke . Being a tributary of Athi River, it also contributes to water supply of Nairobi City. In 2016, Kenya’s dirty air contained more than two times as many of the deadly PM2.5 as the WHO guideline for outdoor air pollution (25.8 micrograms per cubic meter [μg/m3] ). Box 30552 - 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Tel. This pollution has rendered the water throughout the Athi River basin non-potable and poses a significant health risk to all users (Nzuma, 2016). H��TMS�H��W�q��G�)��R�† dB%{`9#�IlY��ߧ����T���^zF�ׯ���L��v��j����~�U��� �Ӳ���t2i��y���mT:TV@�2�������w5�GuuU����uV�̗U7o�����` This water is often contaminated by toxic heavy metals leaching from the dumpsite. The catchment has a gentle slope of 1.01% except along specific channel sections where slopes range … 1992). H�|UMO1��W�і�����n$�ZR��U���E�A���������������瓳1y:::�ZUV�&OT�J�J�ȵsn�`J[��|��g�B���M�Å���Ʌw��p�� ��֝��E Nairobi River water, all the way from Lavington to Dandora, was a sparkling wonder a few decades ago. It abounded with fish and creatures like the water beetle. Introduction Intensive developments of industry, agricultural production and ever intensive urbanization have led to the in - crease in number of pollutants and the amount of wastewater which pollute water flows. endstream endobj 894 0 obj <>stream The discharges did not contribute to thermal pollution. The program seeks to rehabilitate Nairobi River and its network of tributaries by identifying and sustainably addressing sources of river pollution, reclaiming riparian land … :��c �a^AU�ꬢZ+r�vZQ �S[��/�:�]�����FZo6�2Y��F��p���lo3�+ E��m���G�\م�����`2������]�HG Recently, the national government in collaboration with Nairobi City launched the Nairobi River Regeneration program5. It also goes by another local name of Enkare Nairobi, meaning cool water in the Maasai language, a reference to the Nairobi river that flows through the city. 0 water quality in general and DO (Dissolved Oxygen) concentrations in particular. Its main focus is on water quality monitoring and assessment of the Motoine/Ngong River, a tributary of the Nairobi River, over the last two decades. P.O. Ngong river rises from an altitude of about 1,980 m a.s.l and drains into the Nairobi River at 1,525 m a.s.l (Krhoda, 2002). On the contrary, the need for water of satisfying quality continuously grows. amounts of pollutants to the Nairobi River, its tributaries and the main Athi River. The 390 km Nairobi river which resides 56% of the state’s population on its bank has been polluted for 75 years straight, unabated.Authorities have acknowledged that 2475 tons of waste is produced every day throughout the city and most of it goes directly into the river.. %PDF-1.5 %���� Pollution impact. Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment 512 The most recent studies by Kithiia (1992, 20 06), Okoth and Otieno (2000) and Mavuti (2003) Keywords: bioaccumulation, fish, Fourteen Falls, metal, Nairobi River, pollution 1. �P�F�͌��. Nairobi is a city located in Kenya, one of the largest cities in the country and also the capital. ɤL��{ �h��l��e��@y����:B9�X(���MD�v&�*���\E�"9��N�����d�e�y��m$��ȱ�$�׍��v?��O�^L�nLo��!>C����8c�!��L�kn�fCK�QO�2�[�^Y���G����\.��L4��`�!�*� �U"F �O��\A �zt.N{f��Cf8��Zc��P��` A lot happens along the course of the Nairobi River as it makes its way from the north west to the south east of the city. This study focused on the analysis of metals in water and fish from Nairobi River. Box 30197-0001, Nairobi . 910 0 obj <>stream l�����7���_w���k�)��Ŭ���ni�V�ӬMm�Z����e:m��~�^���+��3����D�+N��U�!l�,�����^���Z���4�7��F���mB���x��5t���p��@������:�C�m~]��%������jϚꗵ����������zI�3|q��FZC;�]��?R���j�Q�� �� The study focused on the levels of pollution in industrial effluents discharged into the section of Ngong River flowing adjacent to Nairobi’s Industrial area and how this pollution affected the river pollution levels. (AWSB) and Nairobi City Water and Sewerage Company (NCWSC) to offer improved sanitation services through institutional strengthening. endstream endobj startxref Land owners of the dumping area use the dumpsite and soils around for farming and water from the nearby Nairobi River is either used for irrigation or domestic purposes without regard to the risk of toxic metal pollution by the waste. President Kenyatta tasked the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), under the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, with the daunting task of cleaning up the river and sealing all sources of pollution and discharge of untreated water. Nairobi River has been on the receiving end from various companies and posh estates that dispose of waste into the river including untreated sewage. 4 The WHO recommended annual guideline for PM2.5 is 10 μg/m3.. Kenya does not currently have daily and annual ambient standards for PM2.5. 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